In a tradition of literature remarkable for its exacting and brilliant achievements, the Elizabethan and early Stuart periods have been said to represent the most brilliant century of all. English literature of his reign as James I, from tois properly called Jacobean. These years produced a gallery of authors of genius, some of whom have never been surpassed, and conferred on scores of lesser talents the enviable ability to write with fluency, imagination, and verve.
From one point of view, this sudden renaissance looks radiant, confident, heroic—and belated, but all the more dazzling for its belatedness. Yet, from another point of view, this was a time of unusually traumatic strain, in which English society underwent massive disruptions that transformed it on every front and decisively affected the life of every individual.
In the brief, intense moment in which England assimilated the European Renaissance, the circumstances that made the assimilation possible were already disintegrating and calling into question the newly won certainties, as well as the older truths that they were dislodging.
This doubleness, of new possibilities and new doubts simultaneously apprehended, gives the literature its unrivaled intensity. Real wages hit an all-time low in the s, and social relations were plunged into a state of fluidity from which the merchant and the ambitious lesser gentleman profited at the expense of the aristocrat and the labourer, as satires and comedies current from the s complain. Behind the Elizabethan vogue for pastoral poetry lies the fact of the prosperity of the enclosing sheep farmer, who sought to increase pasture at the expense of the peasantry.
Tudor platitudes about order and degree could neither combat nor survive the challenge posed to rank by these arrivistes. The position of the crown, politically dominant yet financially insecure, had always been potentially unstable, and, when Charles I lost the confidence of his greater subjects in the s, his authority crumbled.
The barely disguised social ferment was accompanied by an intellectual revolution, as the medieval synthesis collapsed before the new science, new religion, and new humanism.
While modern mechanical technologies were pressed into service by the Stuarts to create the scenic wonders of the court masquethe discoveries of astronomers and explorers were redrawing the cosmos in a way that was profoundly disturbing:.
The majority of people were more immediately affected by the religious revolutions of the 16th century. A person in early adulthood at the accession of Elizabeth in would, by her death inhave been vouchsafed an unusually disillusioning insight into the duty owed by private conscience to the needs of the state.
The Tudor church hierarchy was an instrument of social and political control, yet the mid-century controversies over the faith had already wrecked any easy confidence in the authority of doctrines and forms and had taught people to inquire carefully into the rationale of their own beliefs as John Donne does in his third satire [ c. Nor was the Calvinist orthodoxy that cradled most English writers comforting, for it told them that they were corrupt, unfree, unable to earn their own salvations, and subject to heavenly judgments that were arbitrary and absolute.Literary vs. Genre Fiction
Calvinism deeply affects the world of the Jacobean tragedies, whose heroes are not masters of their fates but victims of divine purposes that are terrifying yet inscrutable. The third complicating factor was the race to catch up with Continental developments in arts and philosophy. The Tudors needed to create a class of educated diplomats, statesmen, and officials and to dignify their court by making it a fount of cultural as well as political patronage.
The new learning, widely disseminated through the Erasmian after the humanist Desiderius Erasmus educational programs of such men as John Colet and Sir Thomas Elyotproposed to use a systematic schooling in Latin authors and some Greek to encourage in the social elites a flexibility of mind and civilized serviceableness that would allow enlightened princely government to walk hand in hand with responsible scholarship.
Humanism fostered an intimate familiarity with the classics that was a powerful incentive for the creation of an English literature of answerable dignity. It fostered as well a practical, secular piety that left its impress everywhere on Elizabethan writing.
The Princewritten inwas unavailable in English untilbut as early as the s Gabriel Harveya friend of the poet Edmund Spensercan be found enthusiastically hailing its author as the apostle of modern pragmatism.However, good writing is much more than just correct writing.
Good writing is often as much the result of practice and hard work as it is talent. You may be encouraged to know that the ability to write well is not necessarily a gift that some people are born with, nor a privilege extended to only a few.
If you're willing to put in the effort, you can improve your writing. When writing term papers or essays for school, or should you go on to a career as a professional writer—be it as a technical writer, journalist, copywriter, or speechwriter—if follow you these established rules for effective writing, you should be able to excel, or at least perform competently for any given assignment:.
While having a grasp on proper grammar, spelling, and punctuation won't make you a good writer, these basics are more essential to academic and professional writing than most other genres although advertising is often a curious hybrid of creative and non-fiction writing. The trick to creating academic or professional writing that someone will actually want to read is to balance the aforementioned essentials with your own voice.
Think of your writing, no matter how academic as your part in a conversation. Your job is to explain the information you're trying to convey in a way that's clear and easily understood. Sometimes, it helps to imagine you're talking rather than writing.
Of course, if there were only one kind of writing, it would be easier to come up with an overarching set of conventions to define what good writing is, however, non-fiction alone encompasses a wide array of genres and formats and what works for one doesn't necessarily fly with another.
Now, when you add poetryfiction in its myriad genres and subgenrespersonal essaysplaywriting, blogging, podcasting, and screenwriting to name but a few to the mix, it's almost impossible to come up with a one-size-fits-all umbrella that covers what makes writing good—or bad. One of the main reasons it's so hard to separate good writing from bad writing when it comes to disciplines such as fiction, poetry, or plays, is that the definition of what's "good" is often subjective, and that subjectivity is a matter of personal taste.
People generally know what they like and what they don't like—but that doesn't necessarily mean the writing we don't like is "bad" writing. Let's just choose one famous piece of literature as an example: Herman Melville's novel "Moby Dick," a cautionary allegory of obsession and revenge that pits man against nature.
While there's no arguing that the novel is considered a classic of American literature and is filled with its fair share of fascinating characters, Melville's narrative clocks in at overwords and nearly pages depending on the edition. When you consider that the average novel runs between 60, and 90, words, in terms of length alone, Melville's tale of the whale is a whopper. Unfortunately for many reading the book, the experience is much akin to being a sailor during a whaling-era sea voyage in which you went for days on end going through the routine, tedious, mundane, redundant tasks required to keep the ship going, with the exciting parts of the journey few and far between.
Unless you're fascinated by page after page relating to all things whaling, reading "Moby Dick" can be a chore. Does that make it a "bad" book? Obviously not, it's just not a good book for everyone. Most professional writers—those gifted people who make writing look easy—will be the first ones to tell you that often it's not easy at all, nor is there a right way or wrong way to go about it:.
That's exactly what's going on in children's literature: authors repeat things so they stick with the kids. Earworms turn into knowledge eventually.
So children's stories are full of repeated events, incidents, numbers, days—you name it. And of course, it's all wrapped up in a bunch of pretty pictures and a fun story. How is repetition used by authors of children's books? Check out these quotations from Dr. Seuss's The Cat in the Hatwhich repeat sounds in rhyming lines. Over and over and over again. You'll find more repeated sounds and rhymes in Dr. Children's literature isn't just written to entertain kids—it's written to teach them.
And we don't mean just teaching them their ABCs or s; children's literature also help children learn right from wrong. And wrong from evil. Notice how the bad guy in children's literature almost always gets punished at the end?
Yeah, there's a reason for that. But of course, literature also teaches kids to…read. Check out our video on how Dr. Seuss changed the way we read for more on that matter. People who do bad things are often punished in children's literature. Kids will definitely avoid doing wrong after they see how the witch and her daughter are punished in "Brother and Sister," a fairytale from the Grimms' Fairytales.
Delve into this excerpt Quote 1. Edmund, one of the child protagonists in C. But by the end of the story, he'll figure it out. Check out this quotation Quote 2 from the book.
Children's Literature Characteristics
Pictures: we all love 'em, but kids just go gaga for 'em. Because they're preeeeety.
Illustrations help keep kids' attention and stimulate their imagination. Oh, and they help them understand the stories. Before kids can read, illustrations dramatize and reinforce the story that's being told so they can follow along even if they don't understand the words their parents are babbling out loud. In fact, some children's books are only pictures—after all, they're worth a thousand words.
This edition of Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is full of illustrations that bring the story to life. Seuss wasn't just a writer of children's stories; he was also an illustrator. Notice how things always end with "happily ever after" in children's books?
That optimistic perspective is a big part of what we consider to be children's literature. When we grow up, we may realize that life doesn't always end happily. But why rain on the little ones' parade?All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply. Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Books and Literature. What are the characteristics of oral literature?
Wiki User April 18, PM. Oral literature is basically the art of verbal story-telling. It mostly consists of folklore and epics. Because it has to be memorized there's most likely a uniform meter throughout and quite possibly a repetitive number of syllables per line to make it easier when recited.
There are various characteristics of native American literature. Some of the common features include symbolism, oral story telling, tribal mythology and so much more. Asked in Books and Literature What are the examples of oral literature? Oral literature is a form of literature that is not written but instead is passed verbally from person to person. Many fairytales were originally oral literature. Asked in Books and Literature Why do you say oral literature or written literature?
Asked in Books and Literature What are the two main types literature? Asked in Native American History Which of the following statements about oral literature is correct?
Many cultures have a longstanding tradition of oral literature. Asked in Literary Terminology What are the divisions of literature and types of literature? Asked in Definitions, Literary Terminology What is the definition of oral literature? It is a type of literature which is spoken orally. Asked in Literature and Language What is the example spoken and oral literature?The following are characteristics of Modernism:. The horrors of World War Iwith its accompanying atrocities and senselessness became the catalyst for the Modernist movement in literature and art.
The Different Types of Literature That Have Stood the Test of Time
Modernist authors felt betrayed by the war, believing the institutions in which they were taught to believe had led the civilized world into a bloody conflict.
They no longer considered these institutions as reliable means to access the meaning of life, and therefore turned within themselves to discover the answers. Their antipathy towards traditional institutions found its way into their writing, not just in content, but in form.
Popular British Modernists include the following:. For writers like Hemingway and Fitzgerald, World War I destroyed the illusion that acting virtuously brought about good. Like their British contemporaries, American Modernists rejected traditional institutions and forms.
American Modernists include:. Mini Lesson: Make a chart to identify aspects of modernism. In the left column list the characteristics of modernism in literature — in the middle column find specific passages; in the right column write an analysis of the passage.
It usually addresses issues of human experience through a sequence of events that occur to a group of people within a specific context. This genre encompasses a wide variety of sub-genres that has been expanded over the years and are determined by the themes they address and the narrative techniques they use.
As is usually the case with other themes associated with art and literature, there are great debates about the definitive characteristics of the novel.
One of the main features of the novel is its writing in prose, that is to say that it is not written in poetic format. This implies that it lacks metric rhythm, repetition or periodicity. In some novels lines can be used in verse with different aesthetic purposes. However, in all these cases it can be distinguished that the general style corresponds to prose and that the verse is used only as a narrative resource.
The length of novels is one of the most debated features within the literary field. However, in general, the range is considered to be between 60, andwords. Extension depends on gender and history. At times, when the plot and character development is brief, a novel can be very short. An example of this is the books of the saga of Harry Potter where each one of the novels was longer than the previous one.
This is because as the plot and the stories of the different characters became more complex, a greater extension was necessary. The length depends on the sensitivity the author has to determine how necessary it is to develop a theme or a character. There is no standard measure and may vary according to the intentionality of each situation. There is no rule that determines this characteristic, however, throughout the history of the humanity, the novels have been representatives of the innovation.
That is to say, through them, the transit has been made to new ways of doing literature. In fact, his name itself speaks of innovation: it comes from the Latin Novellus meaning"young and new".
Which represents its importance within the vanguard of literature for each new generation. This can also be seen in its continuous transformation over the centuries, unlike other literary genres that have remained stable over time, especially in the realm of poetry. Another fundamental feature of the novel are the themes it addresses.There are many clear differences between oral and written literature.
In modern times, written literature has been preferred to oral literature because written literature in most cases serves as or contains facts and evidence, whereas oral literature is said to be words without evidence though it is more interesting. Didn't find the answer you were looking for? Ask a Question. James FitzGerald answered. Oral literature is as explained done through words and speaking, whereas written is through the written word.
This is important as there have been a tremendous amount of written stories over the past few hundred years that have been the cornerstone of English literature. This ranges from Geoffrey Chaucer and his Wife of Bath Tales to William Shakespeare and the contribution he has made on written literature on the world. Born in the 16th Century, William Shakespeare is probably one of the most influential and well known authors of the last four or five hundred years.
Written literature can be in the form of short stories, novels and prose whereas oral literature can be described as poems and bards. Stratford is just north of Coventry and Birmingham and has had an incredible influence on English written literature.
Other English writers that have had a profound significance not just on oral but written literature are William Wordsworth, Wilfred Owen and Mark Twain who had a number of successful novels including the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn and Mark Twain who travelled across Europe recounting his tales. Charles Dickens is also another important English author of written literature. Dickens composed one of the most famous tales of modern time entitled A Christmas Carol which has now become a successful adaptation and has made its move onto the big screen and television.
It tells the story of Ebenezer Scrooge who does not believe in the holiest of Christian festivals and who is visited by three of the most famous ghosts in Christmas past, present and future. This tale is so important that it is shown every time when the holiday season comes around.
Oral literature can be defined as the sphere of spoken words to literature. Written Literature works in the domain of written words and the sphere of spoken word is known as oral literature. The difference between oral culture and written culture is that oral literature forms more fundamental component of culture. Moreover, oral literature is performance based such as telling of urban legends is an example of this literature while written literature is more theoretical like novels.